Are you big enough? Are you an athlete? Do you think you are too small? Do you want to be stronger, faster, and have more
? Are you under a lot of
? Are you a high
athlete who wants to play like a pro? Do you have physical pain? There
something you can do: Eat More Protein!
I get asked these types of questions by hundreds of high school athletes and by anyone who wants to get bigger, stronger, or have more endurance. When I answer that the solution is just as simple as eating more protein, many people get very dismayed and feel I am giving them a blown-off response.
It is the simple truth, however; most athletes don’t eat enough protein. And it’s the same thing I tell the professional, college, and Olympic athletes that I have worked with.
We have all heard the false claims that too much protein will destroy your kidneys. That is not true, as long as we drink a sufficient amount of water daily. Many others just don’t want to change their diet to include the presence of high daily intakes of protein. The average high school athlete is usually more interested in starches, which clog the intestines and stop you from maximum absorption of nutrients.
You also get too much false information about what to do in your eating habits. Additionally, depending on which part of the world you’re in, your diet will vary. Here are some simple facts that will always be true:
- If you eat more calories than you burn off, then you will gain weight.
- If you eat fewer calories than you burn off, then you will lose weight.
- Our bodies are primarily composed of water and protein.
- Our body uses proteins and their building blocks as hormones, enzymes, and other essential chemical controlling substances.
- If you don’t take in enough protein everyday, you will cause disease, and in some cases death.
- You need some fats and carbohydrates to maximize the absorption of proteins.
I don’t want to overwhelm you with too much to think about, so re-read those bullets again. That is real basic knowledge that seems to get lost in the big picture of diet and nutrition. Those bullets are about facts in the world of diet and nutrition.
Sure, there are more facts, but those are the main facts that don’t change and they affect every system in your body, including the brain and nervous system.
Protein Absorption & Eggs
Some older athletic diets use to propose eating just raw eggs. This is a foolish attempt at taking in additional protein. Eating raw eggs (or raw egg whites) will only result in about 50% absorption of the available protein. That means that if you eat enough raw eggs to give you 40 grams of protein, your body will only absorb 20 grams.
Eating just raw egg whites results in the same (or worse). Egg whites have a huge amount of a substance called “avidin,” which loves biotin. As a matter of fact, once the avidin-biotin forms a bond, the body can’t break it apart. So you will develop a partial or full Biotin Deficiency Syndrome. Cooking your eggs (or egg whites) will quickly denature the protein avidin and will allow you to absorb 98% of the protein. In short, always cook your eggs.
A special thanks to Ginger Redeker, NPC national figure competitor, who reminded us of this overlooked fact, and thank God she is looking out for all of us science geeks!
The formation of a biotin deficiency from raw eggs has been recognized in science as far back as 1926. Rats were given raw egg whites and developed the symptoms of hair loss, loss of muscle coordination, severe dermatitis, exhaustion, muscle pain, and dry hair or eyes.
The raw eggs contain the glycoprotein avidin, which breaks down very quickly when cooked. This avidin chemical has a huge interest in the amino acid biotin and bonds to it immediately. Many foods contain biotin and there are normal bacteria in the intestines that produce biotin.
The long-term use of antibiotics make the athlete further susceptible to biotin deficiencies, due to the destruction of the bacteria in the intestinal tract.
What Does Biotin Do?
Biotin (a water-soluble B-class vitamin) helps utilize other B’s, aides the Krebs Cycle (energy) in the synthesis of fats & proteins, and also helps in cell reproduction (growth).
Science Has Saved Us Again
Modern supplementation products have helped us to move past the idea of the “raw eggs in a blender.” Today, protein supplements taste better and are easier to absorb by our bodies to make us more fit.
We can now take in fewer calories to obtain a better and leaner look. Science has also helped us with the separation of various types of protein and made their times of usage much easier to understand.
To View Top-Selling Protein Powders, Click Here.
Protein & Weight Loss
I Just Want To Lose Weight, Why Eat More Protein?
Consider the fact that you haven’t decided to join the full blown fitness group and that your interests are more in the weight loss format. A study at the University of Washington found that a diet that included just 30% protein helped a group of overweight subjects lose more fat than those individuals who used only 15% protein in their diets.
It was also noted that the group that consumed more protein ate an average of 440 less calories. This higher protein group lost an average of 8 pounds per person, in less than 3 months.
Types Of Protein
Today not only do you have to decide to take a protein supplement, you have to decide which form to take, and the best time to take that supplement.
To Simplify Protein Choices, Use Our Protein Finder.
Some simple terms have to be understood prior to us moving forward with our education of protein supplements.
Standard amino acids are the chemicals that make up proteins and can be broken down into two types, called:
Essential Amino Acids (EAA’s) are not manufactured by the body, these are produced by bacteria or yeast then passed to a plant or another animal that we eat.
Non-Essential Amino Acids are actually developed from the other essential amino acids, and as such, are not as important to have in the diet. These are usually produced in our bodies, but the processes that produce them can be disrupted due to stress or illness.
Standard Amino Acids are …
Non-Standard Amino Acids are …
Proteins are usually twenty or more amino acids linked together.
BCAA’s (Branched Chain Amino Acids) are special amino acid chains that help produce other amino acids like glutamine. You want a protein supplement that is high in BCAA’s. Using this type of protein may reduce your need for additional supplementation of arginine and glutamine.
In muscle terms, hypertrophy is where your muscle cells actually get bigger.
In muscle terms, this is where your muscle cells actually replicate. Science has long had arguments on which actually occurs in the muscle, hypertrophy or hyperplasia. According to most experts, both occur, depending on what muscle and your genetic make-up.
A positive nitrogen balance is a state where you are taking in more protein than your body is using. A negative nitrogen balance, conversely, is a state where you are taking in less protein than you are using.
Anabolism & Catabolism
Anabolism is a state of tissue building. Catabolism is tissue destruction.
Deamination is the process of removing the amino (nitrogen) from the amino acid, thus producing urea.
Testing this balance is possible through your physician, who can run a Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) test (a urine test). This will determine the amount of nitrogen chemical activity. Urine tests also show the amount of voided nitrogen.
All protein is eventually processed by the liver and excreted by the kidneys. When your body deals with amino acids, it produces ammonia, then it changes the toxin to urea and mixes it with water (that’s why you need a lot of water). When you kick out that much water you loose water-soluble vitamins and minerals, specifically calcium.
Dairy based protein is the most common form of protein. When it is broken down, there are two components that it delivers; whey and casein. The protein in milk comes from the cows that eat and the bacteria in their guts produce a perfect balance of protein. Current science is looking at the process of protein production by the cow and how to enhance those properties. Soon cattle will be producing super protein milk.
Whey protein is derived from milk and comes in two major forms known as concentrated and isolate. Allergies to milk will prevent individuals from taking this type of protein. Concentrate is just like what the name implies, it is a concentrated form of whey protein.
Large amounts of protein can be taken into the body. It is full of essential and non-essential amino acids. It contains between 30-85% protein and is inexpensive to produce. Takes a little longer to absorb than the isolate form of the protein and is usually mixed with other proteins to offer a wider varity of benefits.
Concentrated whey protein is best used in the off-season and the pre-season, due to their larger amounts of natural carbohydrates and fats.
Isolate is a less common form of whey protein and is about 90% pure protein. Isolate protein is a “cleaner” form of protein and contains less fats and milk sugars than whey. It is absorbed more quickly by the body than the concentrated forms and should be used when two months out from an event where someone is looking to loose fat and maintain more lean body mass. This goes into your system very fast, so this protein is best to drink in the morning first thing.
Advantages Of Whey Protein:
- Helps boost immune system.
- Whey will absorb 80-90% and isolate will absorb about 90-99% and mixes can offer 100%.
- Enhances muscle recovery after workouts and helps prevent muscle breakdown.
- Best source of amino acids next to cooked eggs.
- Absorbs very quickly in the body.
- Inexpensive to produce.
- Easy to flavor.
- Has a long shelf life.
- Can be prepared several ways and mixes easily with water.
The milk has a casein protein in it. It isn’t as commonly used since it breaks down slowly and is not as soluble in fluids when compared to whey protein. Casein protein has one strong advantage as a valuable overnight supplement. During the night of 7.5-9 hours of sleep, our bodies don’t have the luxury of two hour meals.
Casein protein with its natural time released properties, fills that gap and slowly digests taking approximately seven hours to digest. This is very necessary critical time to have protein available, because you don’t grow in the gym, you grow when you sleep.
Advantages Of Casein Protein:
- Useful for night-time meal to provide long term.
- Casein will usually offer 50-80% absorption, more if you are resting.
- Long term use offers little side-effects.
- It usually mixes up in a thicker format, so it is great for certain recipes.
- Long shelf life.
- Inexpensive to produce.
- Easy to flavor.
- Casein Isolate is more expensive, but better absorbed.
You take a soy bean and you grind it up, that makes your basis for soy protein powder. Of all the vegetable proteins, soy offers the most complete protein source. Just like with milk protein, it offers a concentrated version and an isolated version. This offers anyone who has problems with milk products an alternative source for supplemented protein.
Advantages Of Soy Protein:
- Mixes with most foods very well to increase protein content.
- Soy protein will absorb between 80-90% in some people it will only absorb 50%.
- Alternative for those who have problems with milk based proteins.
- Lowers cholesterol, better for heart patients.
Take your egg whites, cook them, dry them out and then grind them up, that is the basis of egg protein. The main advantage of egg protein is that it is a complete protein with more branched chain amino acids than the other proteins.
- Highest amount of BCAA’s to help produce L-arginine and L-glutamine.
- Mixes well with foods to increase overall protein content.
- Egg protein will absorb usually at 100%.
- Absolutely fat free, this protein should be the only protein taken as you are in your last two weeks of contest prep.
- Has a casein protein component in it.
Digestion of all proteins is called “deaminiation.” The removal of the amino groups of all twenty amino acids begins with the transfer of amino groups to just one amino acid – glutamic acid (or glutamate ion).
Different forms of proteins absorb at different rates. It is a long educational process to review all of the formulas to determine how completely the protein will digest out of any given food or supplement. I prefer not to review those here. Let’s just focus on simple rules: Cooked whole eggs and whey protein isolate have 100% absorption, and then it starts stepping down from there.
Once protein is taken in by the mouth, the digestive process begins and the lower pH (acid) of the stomach. It is a very short trip, since most of the protein is digested in just a few short feet. The stomach leads to the Duodenum and then leads to the small intestines. Almost 100% of protein is digested and absorbed by the Duodenum.
Timing of your protein ingestion is also susceptible to the other physiological factors. For example, if you are working out, blood is transported to your muscles and away from your stomach and other digestive anatomy. Train your legs and over 65% of your blood supply is tied up in your legs.
This affects the protein absorption. Illness and other stresses reduce the absorption of protein. This is why taking in a protein drink first thing in the morning and also directly after you train, is the best way to utilize your time.
The fluid quickly enters the stomach and is digested and sent quickly to the duodenum for absorption – Only the quick liquid absorption from a protein drink offers this option. That means more free amino acids to keep you in a positive nitrogen balance and that means building muscle.
Eventually protein is broken down into amino acids. The broken down products of protein are the amino acids and ammonia. Ammonia is very toxic to our nervous systems and it’s conversion to urea is critical. Various amino acids and some BCAA’s will remove the ammonia from your system (see information on amino acids below).
Ammonia & Urea
Ammonia is toxic to the nervous system and its accumulation rapidly causes death. Therefore it must be detoxified to a form which can be readily removed from the body. Ammonia is converted to urea, which is water soluble and is readily excreted via the kidneys in urine.
Getting The Maximal Absorption Of Protein For Maximum Growth
First and foremost, the protein you take in should have all the essential amino acids in it. The cooked egg is the easiest to digest so nutritional scientist give it a 100% value.
Some individuals have chronic digestive disorders and current research is looking at patients and their amino acids that are normally produced by their intestinal bacteria. Hopefully more isolation of the problem amino acids will show up as possible future treatments for ulcers and general digestive disorders.
Sorry about that tangent, but it makes a very serious point about protein absorption. Let’s face it, not everyone can just take in hundreds of grams of protein a day and just grow huge. If scientist can look at someone who has trouble digesting, then you can quickly understand how to optimize their protein intake and also help improve your own dietary habits.
Certain amino acids taken by themselves will need to be absorbed alone to maximize their therapeutic benefits. Taking your glutamine or arginine with foods merely results in your body absorbing those extra amino acids as food that is rich in that particular amino.
Remember they all break down in digestion. For example: Peanuts are very rich in the amino acid Arginine, but you hardly get pumped up from eating them.
To Optimize Your Amino Acid/Protein Absorption:
- Take them on an empty stomach at least 15-30 minutes prior to eating and take them with only water.
- Take in protein/aminos in the last ten minutes of exercise or immediately afterwards.
- Never exercise longer than 45 minutes on a regular basis.
- Take amino acids alone 15-30 minutes prior to eating or drinking any protein.
- Take amino acids alone 1 hour after eating, take them only with water.
- Drink only high isolate proteins when you are using amino acids.
- Relax as much as possible after you take in protein. This will allow your digestion to obtain the maximal blood supply.
- Don’t eat more than 6 oz. of starches per day.
- Drink 1/2 gallon of water for every 100grams of protein.
- Get adjusted, manipulation to the spine improves the digestive ability of your system.
- Make an appointment to get your blood and urine tested.
- Step onto a scale, better yet, get a legitimate body fat test performed. Use this information to determine exactly how much protein you should be consuming.
- Take notes about how often you urinate and defecate. Chances are this will change as you increase your food intake and exercise workload.
- Mix your proteins, try not to take in the same protein supplement all the time.
- Use casine based proteins before bed time.
- Sleep either 4.5-6-7.5-9 hours.
- Train with a focus on doing more intense workouts with less time involved.
- Stay mentally positive.
- Get all health issues under control.
- Add some fats and carbohydrates to your diet.
- Gorge on protein at least once per week; this conditions the body to make extra digestive enzymes to help digest future protein meals.
To View Top-Selling Amino Acid Products, Click Here.
Side Effects Of Eating Too Much Protein
- Excess protein will eventually become excess calories and become stored as fat.
- Intestinal irritation of several types; constipation, diarrhea, too much gas, etc.
- Dehydration (drink more water – 1/2 gallon per 100 grams of protein).
- Seizures occur from insufficient amounts of water and when excessive ammonia is produced, which results in simple (fatigue) to complicated neurological disorders.
- Auto immune reaction, associated with using the same protein supplement, mix different protein supplement types (Whey, Isolate, Casein and natural sources). You will build up an immune reaction to any protein drink if you use the same type of supplement. This is why you should attempt to use different protein sources and various protein supplements.
- Increase of liver enzymes, requires a blood test to detect.
Side Effects Of Not Eating Enough Protein
- The most obvious is a bloated stomach, from your body digesting itself.
- Loss of coordination
- Loss of sleep
- Loss of hair
- Dry skin
- Vision problems
- Digestion problems
- Lack of weight gain and worse, weight loss due to loss of lean muscle tissue
- Chronic sinus trouble, allergies, anemia, pain, weak joints, bruising, difficulty breathing, etc.
- General illness
- …this list can go on forever!
How Much Protein Should You Take In?
This has been a hotbed of controversy for some time. First of all, let me say this:
“No Literature Supports The Idea Of Too Much Protein Being Harmful Or Lethal!”
When you are on high-protein diet, you require lots of water to keep the ammonia flushed out of your kidneys. Long before you eat too much protein, many of the previously mentioned symptoms will occur.
Now this next issue has been dealt with by a whole band full of idiots. First step – Let’s have some common sense: excess protein results in excess calories and you will get fat from it. Not enough protein, you will have so many problems that I can’t list them all here. Remember, the best way to know for sure is to test your blood and/or urine. (Cue the supplement companies to make and sell more stick tests.)
Now, the recommendations of protein are directed towards those individuals who are using natural (no anabolic) means of conditioning. Anabolic/insulin/HGH usage is discouraged, especially for anyone under the age of 18. (Your body is so perfectly balanced, you are growing taller!)
No steroid makes you grow taller. Also steroids used by adolescents will result in organs like your heart and liver to not develop properly and result in premature death).
If you are a high school athlete who is trying to gain weight, then eat more protein. I have been coaching young adults for 30 years now. “Eat more and eat more protein,” is the best advice you can get. Sleep and food make you bigger.
Now with all that said, let me simplify this:
Athlete’s Protein Needs = 1 pound of bodyweightrequires 1-2 grams of protein/day.
Please understand that the average athlete will require only their bodyweight (in pounds) equal to grams of protein per day. In other words, a 100 pound athlete equals 100 grams of protein/day.
Heavy lifting athletes, conversely, will result in twice that amount. A 200 pound strength athlete equals 400 grams of protein per day. Again, going past that amount will result in wasted protein and excess calories. Hence the puffy, fat look of some bodybuilders/powerlifters.
Now this is all studied on males, but similar guidelines have been followed by females with success for many women. Another concern is the aging athlete. Research shows that protein in the older adult provides considerable benefits and do not result in toxic effects.
The exact amounts are still undetermined if you are over 50. Chances are that you will need less, since the amount of cellular reproduction is less, but the best answer is to look at what works for you and consider eating ten meals a day, at 90 minute intervals, to achieve better absorption.
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), American Dietetic Association (ADA), and Dieticians of Canada (DC) recommend that1:
- Protein recommendations for endurance athletes are 1.2 to 1.4 g/kg body weight per day, whereas those for resistance and strength-trained athletes may be as high as 1.6 to 1.7 g/kg body weight per day.
- These recommended protein intakes can generally be met through diet alone, without the use of protein or amino acid supplements, if energy intake is adequate to maintain body weight.
Some of the implications of the ACSM/ADA/DC Position Statement1 are that:
- Individual protein requirements may be influenced by the size of an athlete as well as the demands of his/her sport (i.e., whether the sport is mainly “endurance” or “strength” oriented). For example, a 60 kg (132 lb) cross-country runner might require 70-85 grams of protein per day, whereas a 100 kg (220 lb) football player might require up to 160-170 grams of protein daily.
- Athletes require around 10-15% of their daily energy intake from protein, provided that sound nutritional practices are followed and energy intake is sufficient to maintain body weight. If, for example, an athlete consumes 3,000 kcal and 10% of those calories are from protein, that’s enough to provide 75 grams of protein (3,000 x 0.10 / 4 kcal per gram of protein).
When Should I Take Various Types Of Protein?
Again, let’s keep in mind some of the general rules. When you are stressed or exercising, the body will direct blood supply away from the digestive track and you will not digest or absorb protein properly.
- Morning Meal: You have slept all night and are likely hypoglycemic, so using a protein that is quickly absorbed and also delivers some necessary carbohydrates is best. Take in between 30-60 grams.
- Between Meals: stay away from activities/stress: Here you can take in about 30-60 grams of protein, depending on if you are male or female and what kind of digestive constitution you have. Mixed proteins of concentrate and isolate forms are best. It is your choice of what type of protein to take; milk, egg, or soy. Take in between 30-60 grams.
- Pre-Exercise Meal: Using proteins that are mostly isolates will digest the fastest. Take protein in at least 60 minutes prior to exercise to allow for full and proper digestion. Proteins that are high in Arginine will help produce NO and both stimulate increased blood supply to the muscles, but also help stimulate collagen formation for better tendons, ligaments and other cartilage. Take in 30-60 grams.
- Post-Exercise Meal: Using protein blends after exercise is best, this allows for some of the isolates to be absorbed quickly and also allows for some of the concentrates to remain available for continued absorption. Since the body’s blood supply will usually stabilize in less than fifteen minutes, you should consume your protein with carbohydrates immediately following any exercise program.
Due to your body’s lowered blood sugar, the absorption rate is much higher, thus allowing for maximal absorption of all food types. Following exercise, you need a protein that is very high in Branch Chain Amino Acids and Glutamine. Take in between 50 and 100 grams of protein following exercise.
- Before Bed:
Using a protein that has a high casein protein content will allow for absorption over an extended time period and help stabilize your insulin through out the night. You should actually sleep better through the night. Some carbohydrates are necessary for a good nights sleep, due to the brains activity during rest. Take in between 30-100 grams, depending on your duration of sleep and ability to digest protein.
A Quick Word About Real Food
With all this talk about supplements, you would think eating real food is a bad idea. That isn’t true, it is better to eat your protein as real food, it digests slower and contains fiber and trace vitamins and minerals. The best coaches and trainers in the world will tell you to eat most of your meals with real food and only supplement to obtain higher protein intake with lower carbohydrates and fats.
The fiber in real food takes calories to digest, so in a meal of 50 grams of protein, you will likely absorb all the protein, but only have a net gain of 100 calories instead of the 200. Look at an example from the math below.
50 grams of protein x 4 calories/per gram = 200 calories
Another big question that seems to come up with athletes is about mixing proteins. The simple thought is that if you mix protein sources, there is some destructive event that destroys the protein. This is a false claim. What do you think happens when you mix proteins together in a recipe?
Your body will still break down the protein and digest them. It is true if you add various things, like starches to a meal, that it will change your stomachs pH (acidity) and reduce your body’s ability to break down the proteins.
Real foods also keep your body from building immunity to any particular supplement.
Protein supplements are convenient and usually digest quickly. The drinks will digest in less time than a full blown meal, making them great for pre-workout time periods and also when you have little or no time for meal preparation.
I took a random look at protein companies and picked Labrada to review for content and their application in a specific diet. Other companies are welcome to be joined to this article, please summit your request to the author.
Lee Labrada and his staff are a top-notch company that provides you with the latest supplements that are the “cutting edge” of the fitness/nutrition industry. Lee and I have had many discussions on the topic of proteins and other issues of nutrition and training.
He and his top staff people like Dave Rameriz, who is in product development, work very hard to offer the best in nutritional supplementation and also in their public newsletter to keep you informed. Lee takes a lot of interest and pride in his products and they are among the best on the market today.
Lee also has justifiable information that is both scientifically defendable and has years of “real world” testing to establish it. Beware of companies that offer you information that is misleading and not truly based on science. After reading this article you should have a better understanding for the types of protein that you need to use and also the amount of protein that you need to have on a daily basis.
You also know that you need to take in different types of protein at different times. Labrada nutrition has a whole line of proteins to fit your needs. The three main proteins are in a family of supplements that are engineered to help you mix your proteins and maximize the absorption.
Using the following proteins will maximize your absorption and give you the best results. Lee believes so strongly in his products that he has offered a guarantee on them. Who else is doing that?
The three products in the “60” family are: ProV60, Lean body Mass 60, and IsoPower 60.
ProV60 is a multi-blend of five proteins, which is highest in casein protein to best be taken at night. It is a blend to offer more maximal absorption.
Lean body Mass 60 is the king of weight gainers. It is lower in sugar so you don’t gain the fat, but there are six proteins that contain casein and whey concentrate and isolate proteins to allow for the best of both worlds. This is the protein you need if you are having trouble gaining weight.
Use of this product will make you gain weight – Lee guarantees it, right there on the package in black and white. Use this protein before bed or first thing in the morning to allow for sustained release of nutrition throughout the next six hours.
IsoPower 60 is the best protein for quick maximal absorption. It is also the best protein for pre workout and post workout times and will enhance your lean performance. Very low in sodium and sugars, this protein will absorb in most cases in less than 1 hour and be absorbed at almost 100%. You also have a blend of various sources of protein to prevent the common allergic reaction to long-term supplement usage.
Using all these Labrada “60” proteins together will maximize your digestive absorption and keep you from building a resistance to any particular protein supplement. Below is an example of what kind of diet I would write for an athlete who is looking to put on lean mass and gain strength.
So if you are someone interested in becoming a better athlete, making fitness gains and using the best type of supplements available, then try Labrada’s Protein60 family. If you have trouble getting to your fitness goals or absorbing protein, then I suggest changing your eat habits.
Let’s also be frank, you can eat right, but if you don’t train intensely, you won’t provide your body with the proper stimulation needed to signal the need for additional protein. So eat right, train hard, get some proper rest and say your prayers to cover the rough edges. That is my final word on the whole subject.
References For Protein Consumption
- American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association, and Dietitians of Canada (2000). Joint Position Statement: Nutrition and athletic performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 32:2130-2145.
- Tipton KD, Wolfe RR. (2004). Protein and amino acids for athletes. J Sports Sci. 22:65-79.
- Rasmussen RB, Phillips SM. (2003). Contractile and nutritional regulation of human muscle growth. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 31:127-131.
- Tipton KD, Ferrando AA, Phillips SM, Doyle D Jr, Wolfe RR. (1999). Postexercise net protein synthesis in human muscle from orally administered amino acids. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 276:E628-E634.
- Burke LM et al. (2004). Carbohydrates and fat for training and recovery. J Sports Sci 22:15-30.
- Levenhagen DK et al. (2002) Postexercise protein intake enhances whole-body and leg protein accretion in humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 34:828-837.
- Ivy JL et al. (2003). Effect of a carbohydrate-protein supplement on endurance performance during exercise of varying intensity. Int J Sports Nutr Exerc Metab. 13:382-395.
- Saunders MJ et al. (2004). Effects of a carbohydrate-protein beverage on cycling endurance and muscle damage. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 36:1233-1238.
References On Raw Eggs
- The effects of actithiazic acid on egg white-induced biotin deficiency and upon the microbial formation of biotin vitamers in the rat. DHYSE FG, HERTZ R. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1958 Mar;74(1): 7-16.
References On Dairy Cows And Their Amino Acids
- What is the true supply of amino acids for a dairy cow? Lapierre H, Pacheco D, Berthiaume R, Ouellet DR, Schwab CG, Dubreuil P, Holtrop G, et.al. J Dairy Sci. 2006 Mar;89 Suppl 1:E1-14. Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lennoxville, Quebec, J1M 1Z3, Canada.
References on Nitric Oxide (NO) And Its Role In Developing Collagen
- Nitric oxide enhances collagen synthesis in cultured human tendon cells. Xia W, Szomor Z, Wang Y, Murrell GA.; J Orthop Res. 2006 Feb;24(2):159-72.
The links from the Essential and Non-Essential Amino Acids goes to here. Non-essential AA’s are synthesized from the products of their catabolism. The citric acid cycle intermediates. The amino group is donated by glutamate and added by the reverse of the transamination reaction.
The essential AA’s are synthesized in micro-organisms (yeast and bacteria) and then passed through the food chain until we eat some part of that chain. Fixation is when bacteria actually removes nitrogen from the atmosphere and adds it to a carbon based molecule. Interestingly enough, we need bacteria to survive.
Essential Amino Acids
- A natural relaxant, which has just been recently legalized again
- Reduces anxiety & depression
- Helps with the treatment of migraine headaches
- Boost the immune system
- Reduces the risk of heart or artery spasms
- Works with Lysine to reduce cholesterol levels
- Very strong at reducing herpes outbreaks and other viral conditions
- Helps form collagen, to make bone, cartilage and connective tissues
- Aids in the production of antibodies, hormones and enzymes
- Helps maintain full hair growth and prevents anemia
- Helps stop the formation of ammonia
- Helps with normal hair growth by working on the root
- Makes the liver produce Lecithin, which lowers cholesterol levels
- Main supplier of sulfur to prevent skin, nail and hair disorders
- Natural chelating agent for heavy metal toxins
- Reduces the liver fat and protects the kidneys
- Reduces hunger pains
- Used by the brain to produce Norepinephrine, a neuro- transmitter
- Keeps you away and alert
- Improves memory
- A major product of collagen, Elastin (in your skin) and Enamel protein
- Stops the fat build up in the liver
- Aids in digestion
- Helps with the absorption of several nutrients
- Promotes mental vigor
- muscle coordination
- Helps calm emotions
- Provides ingredients for the manufacturing of vital biochemical processes of the body involved in energy and specifically those that keep you alert.
- Provides ingredients for the manufacturing of vital biochemical processes of the body involved in energy and specifically those that keep you alert.
Non-Essential Amino Acids
- Helps the immune responses to bacteria, viruses and tumor cells
- Promotes wound healing
- Helps regeneration of the liver
- Causes the release of growth hormones
- Optimizes muscle growth and tissue repair
- Arginine is a major factor in the making of NO, which gets you pumped
- Transmits nerve impulses to the brain
- Natural antidepressant
- Improves memory
- Increases mental alertness
- Promotes the healthy function of the thyroid, adrenal and pituitary glands
- Has been shown to cure ulcers.
- Research has shown Glutamine to raise Human Growth Hormone levels by over 400%.
- This AA is crucial in nitrogen metabolism.
- Ammonia (formed by nitrogen fixation) is assimilated into organic compounds by converting glutamic acid to glutamine.
- Glutamine can, hence, be used as a nitrogen donor in the biosynthesis of many compounds, including other amino acids, purines, and pyrimidines.
- Help to facilitate the carrying of oxygen to the energy requiring cell-making process
- Important in the manufacturing of hormones
- Strengthens the immune system by providing antibodies
- A storage source of glucose by the liver and muscles
- Synthesizes fatty acid sheath around nerve fibers
- Major improver of mental capacities
- Helps with the healing of ulcers
- Gives a lift from fatigue
- Helps control hunger, helps control alcoholism and schizophrenia
- Major component of removing harmful ammonia from the blood stream.
- Studies have shown that Aspartic Acid increases your resistance to fatigue and also increases endurance
- Sounds simple, but taurine is very important for the stability of membranes. Without that control, there is no nerve activity and no absorption. Without this control you will have abnormal heart beats and seizures
- Along with Sulfur, is a major control of the aging process
- Removes free radicals from the body
- Works as an antioxidant – This is for you military/NASA freaks; protects the body against radiation and pollution
- Slows the aging process
- Deactivates free radicals
- Neutralizes toxins
- Kicks the DNA in your cells on to make proteins
- Forms the skin proteins, helps with recovery from burns and surgical operations
- Hair and skin are made up of 10-14% Cystine
- Found a lot in hemoglobin
- Used pharmacologically in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, allergic diseases, ulcers and anemia
- Deficiencies result in poor hearing
- Is very important for the proper function of joints and tendons
- Helps maintain and strengthen heart muscles
- Is a very important source of energy for muscle tissue, several biological weapons destroy this protein and cause complete rigor
- Major producer of antibodies
- Necessary for the metabolism of sugars and organic acids